|1874 - 1900|
|1901 - 1917|
|1918 - 1932|
|1933 - 1951|
Sketches for a composition for string septet and a piano piece.
Hanns Eisler, Rudolf Kolisch and Karl Rankl become his pupils.
Contributes to the publication “Richtlinien für ein Kunstamt,” published by Adolf Loos, as well as to a Willem Mengelberg commemorative volume.
Attends the first Mahler-Festival in the Netherlands; conducts performances in Amsterdam, is named president of the International Mahler-League. Gives courses in composition.
In March, begins work on a Passacaglia for Orchestra (fragment) and arranges the Five Orchestral Pieces, op. 16 for chamber orchestra, for the “Society for Private Musical Performances.” In July, composes the first two piano pieces from op. 23 and sketches No. 4. In August, begins composition of the Serenade, op. 24.
Conducts “Gurrelieder“ in Amsterdam. In June, travels with his family and several of his pupils to the Mattsee health spa. Because he is Jewish, the local government demands that he leave the premises. Travels on to Traunkirchen. Death of his mother, Pauline Schönberg, on 12 October.
For the Society, arranges “Roses from the South” and Lagoon Waltz by Johann Strauß. In July, in Traunkirchen, works on Prelude and Intermezzo of the Suite for Piano op. 25 (completed in 1923). On 6 October, completes the March from the Serenade op. 24. Arrangements of works by Schubert, Denza und Sioly. With Rudolf Kolisch, drafts an arrangement of Reger’s Romantical Suite, op. 25, for chamber ensemble. Arrangements of Mahler’s “Song of the Earth” and “Songs of a Wayfarer” for the Society remain unfinished. Arranges a “Weihnachtsmusik” (“Christmas Music”) for chamber ensemble.
In February, drafts the opening of a violin concerto. Sketches for two pieces for chamber ensemble (March and May) remain equally fragmentary. Orchestral arrangements of Bach’s Chorale Preludes "Komm, Gott, Schöpfer, heiliger Geist" (“Come, God, Creator, Holy ghost,” end of April in Mödling) and “Schmücke Dich, o liebe Seele” (“Deck thyself, oh dear soul,” 24 June in Traunkirchen). Interrupts work on "Jacob’s Ladder"; the composition remains unfinished (world première in Vienna, Großer Konzerthaussaal, 16 June 1961). In November, starts work on “Gerpa,” Theme and Variations for Horn, Piano, Two Violins and Harmonium (breaks off after fourth variation). “Lied der Waldtaube” (“Song of the Wooddove”) from “Gurreliedern,” version for Chamber Orchestra and Voice (completion of holograph fair copy on 14 December in Mödling).
Having become sensitized to antisemitic actions and statements through the “Mattsee Incident“, Schönberg breaks off his cordial relationship with Wassily Kandinsky, who has been an appointed member of the Weimarer Bauhaus since 1922. He also declines an offer to become director of the Bauhaus music school, referring to the fact that he has been informed of antisemitic tendencies at the Bauhaus.Spends the summer in Traunkirchen.
Schönberg‘s wife Mathilde dies on 18 Oktober.
World première of "Lied der Waldtaube" (“Songs of the Wooddove”), conducted by Schönberg (Soloist: Marya Freund), in Copenhagen on 30 January. Introduces a “Method of Composing with Twelve Tones Which are Related Only with One Another”, which revolutionizes the traditional concept of harmony by means of a new classification of musical material and therewith lays »the foundations for a new procedure in musical construction which seemed fitted to replace those structural differentations provided formerly by tonal harmonies.« (»Composition with Twelve Tones« 1941) In February, in Mödling, completes the Five Piano Pieces, op. 23, begun in 1920, and in February-March the Suite for Piano, op. 25. Completes the Serenade, op. 24 (April-May), which for the first time gives the new method of compostition a musically concrete form. After the death of his wife, Mathilde, on 18 October, continues work on the text of a “Requiem,” which he had begun in 1920; however, he does not set it to music.
On 5 July, conceives a twelve-tone row entitled “Magisches Quadrat” and takes up work again on the Bläserquintett op. 26, begun between April and July of the preceding year but interrupted due to the illness and death of his wife, Mathilde. Completes the fourth movement of op. 26 on 26 August, dedicating it to his grandson "Bubi" Arnold, born in 1923 in Schönberg’s home in Mödling. On 20 July, in Donaueschingen, conducts the first public performance of the Serenade op. 24. World première of the opera "Die glückliche Hand" op. 18, under the direction of Fritz Stiedryon 14 October at the Vienna Volksoper. Begins work on the Suite op. 29, at the end of October.
In August is appointed Director of a Master Class in Composition at the Berlin Arts Academy, as successor to Ferruccio Busoni, who had died the previous year. Antisemitic protests in the “Zeitschrift für Musik“ in reaction to Schönberg‘s professorship, which he takes up on 1 October.
Arrangement of the "Emperor Waltz" of Johann Strauß for the tour of Spain by the Pierrot-Ensemble (dated 1 April). Works on the Suite, op. 29, between June and August. Between 30 September and 10 November, composes Four Pieces for Mixed Chorus, op. 27 (two of the texts are by Schönberg himself; the other two are Hans Bethge’s versions of poetry from the Chinese). On 12 November, having completed the fourth chorus-piece from op. 27, he begins composing a second series, the Three Satires for Mixed Chorus, op. 28, which he completes by 31 December before his move to Berlin.
At the beginning of the year arrival in Berlin with his pupils Roberto Gerhard, Winfried Zillig and Josef Rufer. Not only is Schönberg obliged by contract to offer lessons in composition six months of the year at the Academy of Arts, he is also expected to serve as member of the Academy’s Senate. Until June of the following year lives with his wife Gertrud in the Pension Bavaria on Steinplatz in Charlottenburg. Between July and November temporary visits to Vienna. For health reasons first resumes teaching in Berlin in November.
On 26 March, in Berlin, writes the text for the canon “Wer mit der Welt laufen will” (“He who wants to run with the world”), set to music in 1934. On 1 May, completes the Suite op. 29, begun in Mödling, and dedicates himself to the Variations for Orchestra, op. 31, in which, for the first time, he uses the twelve-tone technique of composition for large orchestra.
Invited as the conductor of his own works to the Berlin Broadcasting Hour. Plan for an international school for the cultivation of style. Spends the summer in Pörtschach on Wörthersee, where after a lapse of many years he renews his friendship with Wassily and Nina Kandinsky. In September and October trips to Vienna. Among his new pupils are Nikos Skalkottas, Alfred Keller and Peter Schacht. In Paris special concerts in honour of Schönberg.
Between 24 January and 8 March, commissioned by the American arts patron Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge, composes the Third String Quartet, op. 30. On 3 March, writes a dodecaphonic song for Baritone, after a poem by Oskar Loerke (fragment). On 12 July, completes the Zionist drama “Der biblische Weg” (“The Biblical Way”), which he had begun the previous year, and for the first time sets forth a comprehensive examination of Jewish politics, Jewish beliefs and the national identity of the Jews, which represents a direct expression of his own experience of antisemitism. Processional music in F Major, conceived for the drama, remains unfinished. On 14 September, Schönberg sketches the opening of a String Quartet; on 14 November, the tone-row table for a violin concerto. In Vienna on 19 September, world première of the III. String Quartet, op. 30, performed by the Wiener Streichquartett (Kolisch Quartet), in the presence of Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge, to whom it is dedicated.
At the beginning of the year trip to Cannes. At the end of January conducts ”Gurreliieder” in London. Concertizes in Switzerland. In March Schönberg and his his wife move into an apartment on Nussbaum-Allee in Charlottenburg in Berlin. Spends July to December in Roquebrune-Cap Martin on the French Riviera.
Starts work on a violin sonata on 2 January, but is interrupted by his concert-trip to London; sonata is taken up again after the return to Berlin, yet remains a fragment. On 7 March, completes a canon in honor of the Amsterdam Concertgebouw Orchestra; on 8 April a canon for three voices in three keys for the 25th anniversary of the Association of German Composers. On 21 August, in Roquebrune-Cap Martin on the French Riviera, completes the composition of the Variations for Orchestra, op. 31, and works on the fair copy of the score until 20 September. On 11 October, completes the arrangement of Johann Sebastian Bach’s Prelude and Fugue in E-flat Major for Orchestra, begun in May. In the libretto for the opera “Moses und Aron”, he again occupies himself with questions of Judaism and the meaning of religion for Jewish unity. The text takes form between 3 and 16 October (at this time, Schönberg still speaks of an oratorio), “Preliminary Studies and Drafts” date from the end of September, while an earlier draft goes back to July 1926. The subject-matter is derived from Biblical prototypes in the Old Testament, deliberately transformed by Schönberg and enlarged upon through non-Biblical elements. World première of the Variations for Orchestra, op. 31, with Wilhelm Furtwängler and the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, in Berlin on 2 December.
January to February: sojourn in Monte Carlo; August to September: Katwijk aan Zee, Holland.
Between January and March, composes Three Folk Songs for Mixed Chorus (begun in December of the preceding year) as well as Four German Folk Songs for Solo Voice and Piano, on behalf of the “German State Commission for the Folk Song Book”, for an anthology to be published by Peters in 1930. Schönberg submits the choral work “Glück” (“Happiness”), op. 35 No. 4, dated 15 March, to the German Workers’ Choral Society, which had commissioned a composition for male chorus in September of the preceding year. The world première takes place on 2 November, with the Erwin Lendvai Quartet, on the Berlin Radio broadcast “Modern Poets and Music for Workers”. In April, completes the Piano Piece, op. 33a. On 3 August, completes the score of the one-act opera “Von heute auf morgen" op. 32 (“From Today till Tomorrow”), op. 32, the first stage work ever composed on the basis of twelve-tone rows. The libretto by Max Blonda (Pseudonym of Schönberg’s second wife, Gertrud) “as a satire on the married life of a very close relative” probably originated in autumn 1928 on the Riviera, the written copy of the condensed score – the composition itself – between October 1928 and 1 January 1929.
April to May: takes a cure in Baden-Baden. July to September: Lugano. Moves to new quarters on Nürnberger Platz. In October gives a lecture in Prague on ”New Music, Outmoded Music, Style and Idea.”
World première of the opera “Von heute auf morgen” op. 32, under Wilhelm Steinberg in Frankfurt am Main on 1 February. Between 19 February and 9 March, composes four of the Six Pieces for Male Chorus, op. 35, (all of these on his own texts) and submits them, along with the previous year’s works “Glück” (“Happiness”) and “Verbundenheit” (“Obligation”) to the Berlin publishing house Bote & Bock publishers. In Berlin on 7 May, begins sketching the music of “Moses und Aron” continuing in Lugano between July and September. Takes up work again on the “Begleitungsmusik zu einer Lichtspielszene” (“Accompaniment to a Cinematographic Scene”), op. 34, begun in autumn of the year before on commission from Heinrichshofen’s Publishing House in Magdeburg, which supplied movie theaters with atmospheric background music for silent films. Schönberg, however, dissociates himself from a genuine script-situation by reducing it to a psychological string of experiences: Danger Threatens – Fear – Catastrophe. World première of the “Begleitungsmusik” under the direction of Otto Klemperer on 6 November at the Kroll Opera in Berlin.
Conductorship in London. In March lecture for the broadcasting system of Berlin. May to September: Montreux-Territet, Switzerland. From October on remains in Barcelona for health reasons.
Continues work on “Moses und Aron,” first in Berlin in January and then between May and September in Montreux-Territet (end of the first act and intermezzo, beginning of the second act) and in Barcelona as of the beginning of October. Between 8 and 10 October, composes the Piano Piece, op. 33b. World première of the Six Pieces for Male Chorus, op. 35, in Hanau on 24 Oktober, with the “13er Quartett der AGV Vorwärts.”
Primarily for political reasons postpones his return to Berlin. Anti-semitic resistance on the part of the Prussian Academy is disguised as formal problems with him. As Schönberg is forced in June to return to the uncertain environment of Berlin, the situation of Jews in Germany is made dramatically clear to him. Breakthrough to political-Jewish involvement. Birth of his daughter Dorothea Nuria on 7 May in Barcelona.
World première of the Four Songs for Voice and Orchestra, op. 22, under the direction of Hans Rosbaud (Soloist: Hertha Reinecke) in Frankfurt am Main on 21 February. In Barcelona, in March, completes the second act of “Moses und Aron.” The opera, conceived as a monumental Gesamtkunstwerk, with extensive stage directions and descriptions of the action, remains unfinished. The third act consists only of the libretto and a few musical sketches.